Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby Racer-X » February 22nd 2017, 5:18pm

Citizen Brand Historical Reference:
http://seikoholics.yuku.com/topic/74/CITIZEN-Brand-Master-Entry?page=1


Dead links redirected to archive.org, where all are working and most have photos.

Citizen Chronographs, Mechanical / Automatic

Citizen produced two types of mechanical self-winding chronographs in the 1970s (probably first produced in 1972) in the form of the 8100 and 8110a calibres. Both have 'flyback' functions (i.e. the chronograph function doesn't have to be stopped first before returning it to zero) and are capable of being hand-wound. They are also both hi-beat movements, running at 28,800 beats per hour (bph).

Citizen - Calibre 8100
Single register chronograph, with flyback (return to zero / immediate restart) function. Single sub-register records elapsed minutes.

Movement:
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Citizen - Calibre 8110a
Two sub-register chronograph, with 'flyback' function (return to zero / immediate restart). Sub-dials record elapsed minutes and hours respectively. A number of models were made using this complex movement, the most commonly seen of which is now known as the Bullhead, which was launched in 1973 as the Challenge Timer:

1973 - Challenge Timer Chronograph
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1973 - Challenge Timer Chronograph
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1978 - With rarer stainless steel Octagonal Case (photo courtesy of Martback)
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The 8110a Movement
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Citizen - Calibre 8200
The 8200 calibre was first produced in the mid-1970s and became a very long-running line of watches over the following decades including the 'Eagle' Seven variant which was Citizen's rival for the later Seiko 5 models (i.e. with 7s26 movement). The calibre typically features a sweep second hand, quickset day and date, two languages, with hand-winding and runs at 21,600 beats per hour.

Citizen - 8110a, 67-9011 'Bullhead'
Usually now known as the 'Bullhead' this watch was actually originally known as the Challenge Timer and nick-named the 'Easter Bunny' or 'Panda'.
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Citizen - Seven Star
Citizen produced this automatic movement in the mid and late 1960's, using the 52xx movement.

Citizen - Crystal Seven
Produced from the mid-1960's the Crystal Seven series featured sapphire glass and variously jeweled versions of the 52xx calibre. It also had re-designed architecture to deliver a slimmer movement / case:

1965 - Crystal Seven
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1967 - Crystal Seven (courtesy of Martback's collection)
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Crystal 7 Advertisement
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1967 example with Arabic numerals:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006050 ... EZ-VI8.htm

1969 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2007052 ... TI-A49.htm

Citizen - Custom V2
Citizen introduced more modern designs for the time, no doubt aimed at a younger market segment, in 1970 as the Custom V2 line. The line included black cased versions, known as 'Blackies', and even a wood cased version, known as 'Afrocraft'

1970 - Citizen Custom V2
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1972 - Custom V2 Afrocraft
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1970 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2007052 ... ITI-A2.htm

1970 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2005010 ... EZ-C30.htm

1972 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2005010 ... EZ-C20.htm

1973 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... EZ-C29.htm

1973 example, with faceted glass:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... EZ-C39.htm

Citizen - Leopard
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Some 40 years ago, as the 1960's drew to a close, the development of Citizen's automatic wrist watches was reaching its peak, in terms of both range and quality. Around the middle of that decade the company switched from it's geared 'jet' rotor design to the more reliable and widely used oscillating weight type, and the late '60's saw the launch of the Chrono Master high grade automatic alongside a range of other new models. In 1969 Citizen launched the evocatively named Leopard line, based on the 7200 calibre. Although this movement was used in other models, the Leopards were distinguished by one key characteristic not to be found in the others – they were all high-beat, running at either 28,800 beats per hour (bph) or 36,000bph. These were Citizen's first watches to run at these speeds, reflecting the quality and reliability they could achieve by that time. These fine movements also all feature a micro adjuster on the balance to assist with accurate regulation.
In a relatively short space of time the Leopard line offered an extensive range of watches, with different jeweling, styles and price points, and can perhaps be best described as 'upper mid' to 'high' grade pieces.
Besides the high-beat common denominator, the Leopards are also characterized by their jewel counts, which are always even numbers – i.e. 28, 26, 24, and later in the production run, 22. Other models using the same base movement usually carry odd number jewel counts, for example the Custom V2 and Seven Star V2, with jewel counts of 25, 23, and 21 (the only exception to this I can identify is calibre 7790, running at 21,600bph with 22, 24 and 26 jewels).
The production run of the Leopards was short-lived – just as the development of mechanical watches was reaching new heights, the introduction of the much more accurate and soon the much cheaper quartz module in the early to mid-1970's brought that development to a halt. The latest Leopard movements entered the market in 1971, just two years after the first model was introduced.

The Movement Families:
Despite the short production run, there was a degree of complexity to the movements used in the Leopards which fall into two groups – the 7200 as per the first model, and the 7700 family used for the first time in 1971. Here is the family tree for the 7200 series, showing the branches for the 74xx and 76xx variants and the variations in the depths of the different movements, all of which are 28.00mm wide. The Leopard models are highlighted, although the bph rating also clearly identifies them:

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Note: the day/date wheel captioned '72-3' in the diagram relates to one model which has the day and date displayed in the same window at 12 o'clock on the dial.
The 7700, used in models from 1971, has a less complex family tree, again the Leopard high-beat movements are highlighted:

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The depth of the movements indicates whether the watch had a date only window, a date and day window, or none of these. As far as I am aware no Leopard sports separate day and date windows.

Here is a summary of movement designations that I have been able to identify so far, with jeweling and day / date complications:

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NB: The model with a combined day and date window at the 12 o'clock position uses the 7220 movement as indicated in the family tree, but is designated '7800' on the case to differentiate it from other models, not only because of its design but also because it has an instant day and date change at midnight (see Schematic 3 below). The model designation is confirmed in the 'museum' book which describes this as a 72xx model, whilst the 7800 designation can be seen in the dial code, as illustrated in this 1971 catalog picture:

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Movement Markings & Schematics:
The movements are stamped near the balance with the movement designation, whilst the rotors are signed 'Citizen' as well as the jewel count - the micro adjuster on the balance cock can also be seen:
Typical example of a 28,800 movement:
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And typical 36,000bph movement:
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Example of the movement number and detail of the fine adjuster:
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The following schematics show the architecture of the two movement types.
Schematic 1 – 72xx Movement, Rotor Side:
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Schematic 2 – 72xx Movement, Dial Side
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Schematic 3 – 7800 Variant, Dial Side:
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Schematic 4 – 77xx Movement, Rotor Side:
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Schematic 5 – 77xx, Dial Side:
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Movement Features:
All movements are automatic of course, but they also hand wind and 'hack' (i.e. the second hand is stopped when the crown is pulled out to the hand setting position, to enable accurate synchronisation). Models with day and date complications are able to be quick set. The 77xx movements are unusual in that their quick set mechanism requires the watch to be held vertically (12 o'clock up) for the date to be set, then inverted (six o'clock up) to set the day, by pressing the crown whilst in its normal running position.

Dial & Case Markings:
All models have the Citizen logo applied beneath the 12 o'clock position, usually with 'automatic' printed immediately below it. Although the iconic leaping cat Leopard logo is found on many models it is not always present. However, when present it is either printed in black on white or silver dials, or white on dark dials – black, blue, grey or green for example. The logo is usually placed above the 6 o'clock position above any other markings on the lower half of the dial. Models with the day and date window at 6 o'clock position have their logo placed just below the 12 o'clock position.

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Most models have their jewel count printed centrally on the lower part of the dial. With the exception of the top most model, see below, the dial is always marked 'Leopard' in an italicized upper case script, together with the speed rating. This is either printed as the bph rating ('28800' or '36000') or as the beats per second preceded by 'Superbeat' (i.e. 'Superbeat 8' or 'Superbeat 10'), whilst on some the text is restricted to 'Superbeat'.


Case backs are conventionally stamped, showing model number, case type, serial number and water resistant or 'parawater' (Leopards were produced at the time watch manufacturers were required to change from waterproof -'parawater' - to water resistant):
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Crowns are usually signed 'CTZ', but I have seen examples of the older 'C' signature:
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The Ultimate Leopard:
At the top of the Leopard tree is the 'officially certified' chronometer version. Using the 7230 movement, the factory adjustments were to Citizen's own chronometer standards – an example of these standards can be found in the Chrono Master (hand wind) article here http://seikoholics.yuku.c...24/Citizen-Chrono-Master The dial markings are unique to this model, and include an Art Deco style logo applied above the six o'clock position. The upper markings indicate the chronometer standard, whilst '36000' or 'Superbeat 10' and 'automatic' accompany the special logo:

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Either silvery white (as above) or grey dials appear to have been produced:
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The case back features a gold medallion version of the special logo in the centre, with movement and case markings around the outer track:
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Case & Dial Styles:
As a result of the extent of the Leopard range there is a considerable variety of case and dial designs. A solid gold (18k) case was used, as was gold plate but stainless steel is the most widely used material. Case shapes of most types are seen – round, cushion, oval (on both axes) and rectangular, whilst some models, including the Chronometer featured faceted glass. These are all illustrated in the gallery section.
Dials range from the conventional classic type to coloured and textured types more typical of 1970's design. A number of models feature a 'tail-less' second hand, and there are a variety of day and date window positions (although there were no models with separate day and date windows). Again see the gallery section for examples of the different types.

Original Prices:
As would be expected, the higher beating chronometer models, at 36,000bph, were the most expensive watches in the line up, typically (in 1971) retailing for around JPY30,000. However, the most expensive model were the solid gold versions, at JPY100,000. Gold plated models were generally JPY1000 to JPY2000 more expensive than their stainless steel counterparts.
The 36,000bph non-chronometer models retailed for around the JPY25,000 mark, with the cheapest 10 beat model costing JPY22,000.
The larger group of 28,800bph models retailed for between JPY14,000 and JPY19,000 for the 26 jeweled versions, whilst the 24 jeweled models were JPY15,000 or JPY16,000. In this case the jewel count did not exactly match the pricing hierarchy.
The 22 jewel models were introduced later and the example I have seen from 1973 retailed for JPY14,000.
Prices for individual models can be seen in the following catalog scans, in the gallery section.

Gallery:

This section contains scans of the Leopards from Citizen's 1971 catalog, followed by a few representative images of models from the range. Please ask if you would like larger or individual scans of the catalog pages since I have kept these on the small side for the purposes of this article:
The Chronometer models:

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36,000bph models:
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The 7800 variants:
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The 28,800 range:
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Finally here are some representative examples of the Leopard family:
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[img][img]http://i282.photobucket.com/albums/kk252/Sweephand/Leopard%20Article/Greyoval36k.jpg[/img][/img]
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Citizen - 8110a, 67-9054 Green Dial
This version has a tachymeter bezel, on some it is plain. Also known as a 'TV Screen' chronograph:
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Citizen - 8110a, 67-9054 Blue Dial
From 1974, this model has a plain black bezel, others have a tachymeter. Also known as a 'TV Screen' chronograph:
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Another example from 1974:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004031 ... ITI-A0.htm

Citizen - 8200, 71-2639
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Case:
Width w/crown - 39mm
Width w/o crown - 36mm
Length - 42mm
Depth - 11mm
Lug width -18mm
Crystal - Acrylic

8200A movement, 21 jewels, automatic, hand windable, 21,600bph, quick set day/date, day in English and Arabic


Citizen - 8200, 4-S82311 HSF
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Case:
Width w/crown - 43mm
Width w/out crown - 40mm
Length - 42mm
Depth - 12mm
Lug width - 20mm
Crystal - mineral glass

8200A, 21 jewels, auto, hand windable, 21,600bph, screw down crown, uni directional bezel, quick set day/date, day in English and Spanish


Citizen - 8200, 4-824181 Y
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Case:
Width w/crown - 43mm
Width w/out crown - 40mm
Length - 42mm
Depth - 12mm
Lug width - 20mm
Crystal - mineral glass

8200A, 21 jewels, auto, hand windable, 21,600bph, screw down crown, uni directional bezel, quick set day/date, day in English and Arabic


Citizen - 8200, 4-824164 Y
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Case:
Width w/crown - 43mm
Width w/out crown - 40mm
Length - 42mm
Depth - 12mm
Lug width - 20mm
Crystal - mineral glass

8200A movement, 21 jewels, automatic, hand windable, 21,600bph, quick set day/date, day in English and Arabic



Citizen - Newmaster
Along with the 'Homer' range of hand winders , the Newmaster was Citizen's line of simple non-automatic watches.
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1960 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... TI-H40.htm

1971 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004071 ... ITI-H1.htm

1972 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004031 ... TI-H11.htm


Citizen - Alarm
Citizen produced their first alarm hand-winding watch in 1958, having acquired the rights to a Swiss designed movement. The same movement was subsequently used in Russian Poljot watches:
1958 - Citizen Alarm
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More examples of this pointer-type alarm from BQ Watch Museum site in Japan:
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Last edited by Racer-X on October 23rd 2018, 2:19am, edited 10 times in total.
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Re: Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby Racer-X » February 22nd 2017, 5:19pm

Citizen - Cutlass
A rarely seen sub-line from the late 60's early 70's


Citizen - Homer
Launched in 1960, the Homer was Citizen's first watch to be designed for an automated assembly line. Accuracy : + or - 40 seconds per day

1961 - Citizen Homer
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Citizen - Cosmostar
A line of ladies hand winding watches from 1969 /1970, this was a popular and long lived line, and included a V2 version with day and date window.
1970 - Citizen Cosmostar V2
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Citizen - Chronograph
Citizen's first chronograph, using the hand wound 5700 calibre with 21 jewels - flyback function, no sub-dials. They came in two models, the 'Record Master' and the 'Rally Custom' which added a slide rule bezel, and were launched in 1967


Citizen - 0201, 63-4018
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Case:
Width w/crown - 38mm
Width w/out crown - 35mm
Length - 43mm
Depth - 9mm
Lug width - 18mm
Crystal - Acrylic

0201, 21 jewel hand wind, 18,000bph

Citizen - Calibre 6000

Citizen - 67-2050
Leopard Super Beat 10, running at 36,000bph, with 28 jewel movement, from 1973, using the 7230 movement. The movement can be hand wound, and hacks - see the hacking lever in the movement picture:
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Citizen - Auto & Autodater
All watches in the Autodater family from Citizen in the early to mid-1960's

Citizen - Jet
This movement is characterised by its circular gear type rotor, and was Citizen's first automatic to go into volume production, in 1961:
1961 - Citizen Jet
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1962 - Citizen Jet Autodater
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1962 - Jet Autodater from Martback's collection
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1963 - Jet Autodater from Martback's collection
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1961 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004032 ... TI-A60.htm


Citizen - Jet Rookie
A sub-line of the Jet automatics:
1962 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2005010 ... EZ-C22.htm


Citizen - Uniauto
Dials often marked 'Auto Dater Uni', some marked 'Uniauto', and with special printed logo - small circle pierced by an arrow shape at the top. Although a lower end model it was important in that it featured a new type of auto winding mechanism, first produced in 1963, using the swinging rotor to replace the 'Jet' style rotating gear:
1963 - Citizen Uniauto
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1964 - Citizen Uni
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1964 - Uniauto, Citizen's first use of the swinging weight type of rotor

Another example from 1964
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White dialed example, probably from 1964
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Citizen - Parawater
Dial usually marked 'autodater', plus 'parawater (Citizen's version of waterproof):

Example from 1963:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004032 ... TI-A44.htm

1964 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004031 ... TI-A23.htm


Citizen - Seven
This was Citizen's first volume production model with day and date wheels, and quickset date. Launched in 1962, it was also the source of the later and very successful Seven Star V2 line:
1962 - Citizen Seven
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Example from 1964:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004032 ... TI-A57.htm

Example from 1965:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004032 ... TI-A58.htm

1966, 'Super Flat' version:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004032 ... ITI-A7.htm


Citizen - Seven SM23
One of Citizen's first automatics to use the swinging weight type of rotor to power the mechanism (compare with the Citizen 7 Auto, which used the 'Jet' circular rotor):

Examples from 1965:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004032 ... TI-A37.htm
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006053 ... TI-A16.htm


Citizen - Seven 520
Another example of the first of Citizen's automatic to use the swinging weight type of rotor

1966 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004032 ... ITI-A9.htm


Citizen - Chronomaster
The Chrono Master is a 'high-end' watch that first appeared in Citizen's line-up in 1967. Although it was not the first of Citizen's watches to include chronometer grade movements, since it was preceded by the Chronometer (1962), it featured a range of models in both hand-wind and automatic forms, and has probably become Citizen's most recognised high grade vintage watch. Although there are other high end lines by Citizen, the Chrono Master is probably the best known. This two part article summarises the history and development of the Chrono Master, with examples and other material shown for reference. Part 1, on the hand-winding models can be found in the appropriate section of this database.

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Part 2
The Automatic Chrono Master, 1967: Citizen launched all bar one of their automatic versions of the Chrono Master in 1967, the same year as their first hand-winding model. The movement is essentially the same for each version, in either 33 or 35 jewel form, but with some extra adjustment on the higher jeweled versions to justify 'special', 'chronometer' and 'superior chronometer' grades. The movements were also differentiated on the dial side by being either date only, or day and date models.
The movements are part of Citizen's 52xx/54xx family, which can be found in a range of their other models, for example the well known Crystal Seven and the Seven Star lines, and the lesser known Crystal Date, Cutlass and Dandy Seven models. The 52xx line features both day and date windows, the 54xx line is date only. The Chrono Master movements are the 5240 / 5250 and the 5440 / 5450 calibers and following family tree illustrates where they slot into the lineage:

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The numbering methodology for the movements is linked to jeweling and degree of adjustment (and consequently reflected in the dial marking) as follows: 5240 & 5440, with 33j - Chrono Master & Chrono Master Chronometer
5250 & 5450, with 35j - Chrono Master Special & Chrono Master Superior Chronometer
The pricing structure (see below) also follows the degree of adjustment and therefore accuracy achieved at the factory. I have not been able to find any accuracy certification specifically for the Chrono Master, but I have included an example for Citizen's 1962 'Chronometer' in Part 1 of this article for reference.
The following table summarises the 52xx/54xx movement family by jewel count – interestingly, the 35 jewel Chrono Master is not the highest jeweled movement – that fell to the 43 jewel Crystal Seven (5204) produced in 1965:

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The movements both run at 18,000 beats per hour, and measure 28.00mm across, and are 3.98mm deep (date only) or 4.38mm (day and date). They have a micro-adjuster on the balance to assist fine tuning. Here is a schematic of a 33 jewel movement, with the Chrono Master balance, with micro-adjuster shown at bottom left:

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Like its hand-winding namesake, the automatic Chrono Master features a medallion on the case back. So far I don't recall seeing a gold cased version, only stainless steel, and no gold version is listed in my reference material. The Superior versions have a gold 'eagle' logo on the dial (see catalog photo below):

5240 Chrono Master:
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5240 Case Back:
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5240 Movement:
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5250 Special:
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5250 Movement
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5440 Chronometer:
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5440, 33j Chrono Master (date) ..........................................25,000
5240, 33j Chrono Master (day/date).....................................28,000


5450, 35j Chrono Master Special (date) ................................35,000
5250, 35j Chrono Master Special (day/date) ..........................38,000


5440, 33j Chrono Master Chronometer (date) ........................26,000
5250, 33j Chrono Master Chronometer (day/date)...................29,000


5450, 35j Chrono Master Superior Chronometer (date) ...........36,000
5250, 35j Chrono Master Superior Chronometer (day/date) .....39,000


In 1971, catalog prices look to be very similar:
5240 Chronometer:
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5440 Chrono Master:
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5250 Superior:
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The Chrono Master Diver, 1971
One more version of the automatic line was produced, in 1971, in the form of a diver. This is a very rare piece, I've yet to see one for sale or in a collection gallery. Rated to 500m, the diver movement is the 5420, a date only model with 33 jewels:
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Here it is shown with a price tag of JPY35,000 in the 1971 catalog:
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The Electro-Mechanical Chrono Master:


An article on vintage Chrono Masters should not overlook one other model, first produced in 1969 as part of the 'X8' electro-mechanical watch line. This followed Citizen's pioneering 'Electric Watch' of 1966, using the 0802 movement. In these watches the traditional mainspring is replaced by a battery and integrated circuit, which then powers a conventional hairspring balance albeit fitted with magnets.
Although the 0802 movement ran at 18,000 beats per hour powered by its 1.5v battery, the subsequent 'Cosmotron' models using later hybrid movements ran at 36,000 beats per hour, and in one case 43,200 beats (i.e. 12 beats per second).
The 25 jewel 0802 movement had only a short production run, reflecting the rapid development of the technology. However, the use of the Chrono Master name, and later models which were labeled 'officially certified chronometers', indicates their ability to run accurately, at least within the parameters of mechanical accuracy standards.
The distinctive case shape was shared with the original Electric Watch version:

0802 X8:
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0802 Movement:
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0802 Case:
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Citizen - Seven Star Rally Custom
Features rotating inner bezel and separate day and date windows
1969 - Seven Star Rally Custom (courtesy of Martback's collection)
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1969 Example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2007052 ... TI-A38.htm

Several more views
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Model 4-521358TA, Calibre 5290, 1969 example:
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Citizen - Seven Star Deluxe
image 1970 - Seven Star Deluxe (courtesy of Martback's collection)
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Citizen - Seven Star Deluxe Monthly
using the 52xx calibre (late 1960's) this watch features a month window at the 12 o'clock position, moved manually by a second crown positioned at 2 o'clock. Runs at 18,000 beat per hour, with quickset date and hand winding.
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A silver dialed version, with separate day and date windows from 1966 , can be seen here:
broken link----http://www.himawari.sakur...~garaken/TEZ/TEZ-C31.htm

Citizen - Seven Star Custom Deluxe
Example from 1969 can be seen here:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2007052 ... TI-A35.htm
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Re: Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby Racer-X » February 22nd 2017, 5:49pm

Citizen - Seven Star V2
The V2 variant of the Seven Star series emerged about 1970, using the
71xx and 77xx movements, and was in production for a short period in
the early 1970s.
1970 - Seven Star V2 (courtesy of Martback's collection)
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1973 - Seven Star V2 (courtesy of Martback's collection)
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An early example from 1969:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... EZ-C17.htm

Another from 1969:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2007052 ... TI-A55.htm

1970 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2007052 ... TI-A56.htm

This 1971 model has an interesting day/date window at 12 o'clock - the day wheel overlaps the date wheel in the same frame:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004121 ... ITI-A8.htm

Also from 1971:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004031 ... TI-A30.htm

1972 example, with roman numerals:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004052 ... TI-A36.htm

1974 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... EZ-C15.htm

1975 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2005010 ... EZ-C19.htm


Citizen - Alarm 4H
1960 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... ITI-H3.htm

1963 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004031 ... TI-H14.htm

1965 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... TI-H10.htm

1969 example (lumed pointed hands):
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004031 ... TI-H13.htm

1969 example (lumed squared off hands):
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... TI-H21.htm


Citizen - Alarm Date
1967 - Citizen Alarm Date (courtesy of Martback's collection)
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Citizen - Alarm Date Diver
1968 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004031 ... TI-H35.htm

Citizen - Homer Date
1965 - Example from Martback's collection
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1964 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... TI-H31.htm

Citizen - Homer Weekly
A rare and unusual model - the window displays the day of the week only - i.e. no date wheel / window is featured:

1964 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... TI-H20.htm

Citizen - Homer Second Setting
A rare example of the Homer with Second Setting, unfortunately the production date is not known:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004121 ... TI-H16.htm

Citizen - Deluxe
Movement Designation: 2B / 9200
Dial Markings: Deluxe, Second Setting, Parashock, Phynox, Parawater (1959 model)
Movement Type: Handwind
Beats per Hour: 18,000
Jeweling: 19,21,23
Movement Width: 26.60mm
Movement Depth: 3.65mm
Features:
Production Start: 1958
Production End: 1963
Original Price: 5,750JPY to 9,300JPY
Notes: A significant watch for Citizen in that sales of the Deluxe exceeded 100 million. It was also Citizen's first model (from 1959) to carry the 'Parawater' (waterproof) designation, and hacking capability ('Second Setting'), i.e. the second hand stops when the time is set to enable accurate synchronization.
The notably thin movement was well suited to 'dress' style watches.
Many dial designs were produced, including texture effects and contrasting colours / textures
Some movements, probably very early in the production run, and possibly those designated '2B'since that was the earlier coding, had adjustable weights on the balance wheel:

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These weights are not present on other balance wheels, logically those designated 9200:
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First Parawater watch, 1959, showing original bracelet:
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This model emphasises its 'Parawater' properties, with the 'Deluxe' logo relegated to the 6 o'clock position:
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Whilst on this one the logos are in their more familiar positions:
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Diagram of Parawater system:
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Here's an example of the 'Second Setting' model:
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Citizen used different combinations of colour and texture on many of their Deluxe models, especially in the early years of the production run, as can be seen on the above Second Setting model. Here are a few examples of other designs:
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Here's a closer look at one of the 1959 models:
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The movement, showing the typical movement markings:
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On these pre-1960 models the serial number is found on the inside of the case back:
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More examples, from 1959, can be seen here:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2016080 ... ITI-H9.htm
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2016080 ... TI-H41.htm

And an example from 1960:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2016080 ... TI-H30.htm

Citizen - Diamond Flake
Citizen's ultra slim model, competed with the Seiko Gold Feather, and was launched in 1962:
1962 - Diamond Flake
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1963 - Citizen Diamond Flake
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1964 - Diamond Flake Movement
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Example of a square version, from 1963:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... ITI-H8.htm

Diamond Flake Advertisement
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Diamond Flake featured in a group advertisement
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The Diamond Flake movement came in 2 variants: 25j & 31j. It was 2.75mm thick [compared to the Seiko Goldfeather (cal. 60M) which was 2.95mm and also a center-seconds design].

Comparative thin movements outside Japan:
Cal. 2209 [Russian] from 1961 - 2.9mm
Vympel 2200 (1965) - 1.85mm
Swiss Jaeger-LeCoultre cal. 839 (1975) - 1.85mm

In recent years Seiko Credor calibre 6870 and calibre 6899 are both 1.98mm [see pictures in Seiko Brand: Credor hand-wind 68 Family entry].

Pricing for Diamond Flake in 1962(?) was JPY 9,000 to JPY 13,000 [vs. Seiko Goldfeather which was priced from JPY 9,000 to JPY 13,500].


Citizen - Excel
Example of a Citizen Excel (woman's watch) from 1963:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... TI-H37.htm


Citizen - Hi-Line
Citizen HiLine:
Image

1963 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... ITI-H4.htm

Another example with "Art dial":
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HiLine featured in a 1962 group advertisement:
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Citizen - Seven
Citizen produced a hand wind only version of the Seven as well as an automatic of the same name:

Example from 1965:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004031 ... ITI-H2.htm

Example from 1966, with an unusual day window:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... ITI-H7.htm


Citizen - Young Date
Citizen Young Date, thought to be a variant of the Homer, from 1966:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... TI-H33.htm


Citizen - Record Master
1967 - Record Master Chronograph
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1972 - From Martback's collection
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Citizen - Record Master Rally Custom
Record Master Rally Custom shots:
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Example from 1971:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... TI-H36.htm


Citizen - Junior
Movement Designation: 2S / 910
Dial Markings: Junior, Waterprotected, Parashock, Phynox
Movement Type: Hand wind
Beats per Hour: 18,000
Jeweling: 9,11,15,17
Movement Width: 26.00mm
Movement Depth: 4.50mm
Features:
Production Start: 1958
Production End:
Original Price: 2,950JPY to 4,600JPY
Notes: Entry level movement featuring a wide range of dial designs, including textures, tartan and pictures, e.g sailing ship, mountain peak. One model features a globe on the dial with city names and time differentials engraved on the case back


Examples from 1958 /early 1960's:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... TI-H38.htm
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... TI-H44.htm
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004121 ... TI-H45.htm


Citizen - Centre Second
First launched in 1948, featuring a full length second hand mounted centrally, the 'Center Second' movement was developed through six versions from the late 1940's to the late 1950's. Notably Citizen launched their 'Parashock' earthquake proofing system in the Centre Second line in 1956.

Movement Designation: Center Second (first version)
Dial Markings: Citizen
Movement Type: Handwind
Beats per Hour: 18,000
Jeweling:
Movement Width:
Movement Thickness:
Features: Full size second hand
Production Start: 1948
Production End:
Original Price:
This movement appears to have been short-lived with the introduction of the 'New Citizen' in the following year
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Movement Designation:Center Second 'NC' (second version)
Dial Markings: New Citizen, Center Second
Movement Type: Handwind
Beats per Hour: 18,000
Jeweling: 10, 17
Movement Width: 26.50mm
Movement Thickness: 5.55mm
Features: Full size second hand
Production Start: 1949
Production End:
Original Price: 4,620JPY (10j), 4,920 (17j)
Notes: Appears to be a rapid development of Citizen's first centre second watch, which was launched just a year earlier


Movement Designation:Center Second (third version)
Dial Markings: Special Citizen, Center Second
Movement Type: Handwind
Beats per Hour: 18,000
Jeweling: 8,11,16,17
Movement Width: 23.30mm
Movement Thickness: 5.10mm
Features: Full size second hand
Production Start: 1950
Production End:
Original Price: 3,390JPY to 4,700JPY
Notes: More compact movement with greater range of jeweling, indicative of the growing market for wrist watches

Image

Movement Designation: Center Second (fourth version)
Dial Markings: Citizen, Center Second, Water Protected
Movement Type: Handwind
Beats per Hour: 18,000
Jeweling: 7,8,11,16,17
Movement Width: 23.30mm
Movement Thickness: 5.10mm
Features: Full size second hand
Production Start: 1952
Production End:
Original Price: 3,540JPY to 5,230JPY, add 1,300JPY for gold filled model
Notes: Further iteration of the centre second movement with a greater number of models, and adding a degree of water resistance to the case design on some variants

Movement Designation: Center Second 'S' (fifth version)
Dial Markings: Citizen Watch, Phynox, Nivaflex, Invaflex, Center Second, Water Protected, Parashock (from 1956)
Movement Type: Handwind
Beats per Hour: 18,000
Jeweling: 9,11,15,17
Movement Width: 23.30mm
Movement Thickness: 4.50mm
Features: Full size second hand
Production Start: 1955
Production End:
Original Price: 3,460JPY to 6,700JPY
Notes: Now a slightly thinner movement, with dials sometimes showing the type of mainspring alloy and, from 1956, the 'parashock' logo

Image

Movement Designation: Center Second (sixth version)
Dial Markings: 3 stars, Phynox, Parashock
Movement Type: Handwind
Beats per Hour: 18,000
Jeweling: 19
Movement Width: 23.30mm
Movement Depth: 4.50mm
Features:
Production Start: 1957
Production End:
Original Price: 8,500JPY to 20,400JPY (for 18K gold model)
Notes: This final version was essentially a high grade model of the 6th version, the model line including an expensive solid gold model for the first time. Three stars were also used on the dial for the first time, indicating a higher grade model, a convention which Citizen was to use in later model lines


Here are photographs of the Parashock system being tested, it was designed to withstand the shocks from earthquakes:
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Diagram of the system, which uses jewels and springs mounted to protect the balance wheel and its pivots:

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Parashock information leaflet:

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Citizen - Adorex
Medium to high level watch from the early 1970's, with fine adjuster, including special models, using unusual case materials.
1974 - Adorex Special, with Natural Stone Case
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A more conventional model from 1974:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004052 ... TI-A47.htm


Citizen - Challenge Golf
A special sports watch to reflect the growing popularity of golf at the time, using 77xx movement (as seen in the 'Leopards'), with fine adjuster, date window and scoring window at 12 o'clock position. Launched in 1972:
1972 - Citizen Challenge Golf
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1972 - Citizen Challenge Golf
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CITIZEN - Electro-Mechanical Watches (i.e. not quartz/kinetic/solar)
All electro-mechanical watches to ge in this area
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Re: Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby Racer-X » February 22nd 2017, 5:49pm

Citizen - Cosmotron
The Cosmotron line was Citizen's electro-mechanical watch produced over a short period in the 1970's before quartz modules took over. Battery powered, they use a conventional hairspring and provided good accuracy and a smooth sweeping second hand.


Citizen - Cosmotron X8
1966 - Citizen X8
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1966 - First X8, from Martback's collection
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1969 - Cosmotron X8
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X8 from Martback's collection
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1966 - X8 Advertisement, showing prices
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Citizen - Cosmotron X8 Date
X8 date example from 1970:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2007051 ... ITI-O1.htm

Another example from 1970
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... TEZ-50.htm


Citizen - Cosmotron Special
The Special versions were made later on in the production cycle
1972 - Cosmotron Special
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1972 - Cosmotron Special
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Example from 1974, with faceted glass:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2007051 ... TI-O11.htm

Example from 1975:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006012 ... EZ-C41.htm


Citizen - Cosmotron GX
GX example from 1973:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006012 ... TEZ-49.htm

And another from 1975:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2007051 ... ITI-O3.htm


Citizen - Super Deluxe
Movement Designation: 9200, 9201, 9202
Dial Markings: Super Deluxe, 3 stars, Parashock, Parawater, Phynox
Movement Type: Handwind
Beats per Hour: 18,000
Jeweling: 23, 25
Movement Width: 26.60mm
Movement Depth: 3.65mm
Features:
Production Start: 1958
Production End:
Original Price: 10,000JPY to 33,000JPY
Notes: This was Citizen's first 'super' version of one of their standard movements. The movements were finished to a higher standard, featuring gold plated bridges, and were 'specially adjusted' at the factory giving greater accuracy than found in the base movement with its standard three adjustments. This was Citizen's most accurate watch before they released the Chronometer in 1962. Some models feature a three star marking on the dial, which Citizen later repeated in their 'super' versions of other models. (NB: a Super Deluxe 'Date' model was produced later - however this used a different movement so is the subject of a separate entry).

1958 - Super Deluxe, on original leather strap.
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The same model in more detail from 1960, with pointed crown, characteristic of models early in the production run (note this one features an additional star motif at 6 o'clock):

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Both 23 and 25 jewel movements were finished and marked in the same ways:

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Examples of different cases, dial designs & markings:

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The Parawater model - note the steel bracelet recognising its water resistant properties:

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A closer look at this gold filled version from 1962:

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The back details the thickness and quality of gold used, whilst the serial number indicates a production date of February 1962:

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The hands are shaped to the contours of the dial and crystal, allowing the minute and second hands to sweep to the edge of the dial:

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The inside of the case back is lightly milled:

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And the movement is appropriately finished and marked - although there was 'special adjustment' at the factory, there is a conventional adjuster on the balance with no fine adjustment device:

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Detail of the dial finish:

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Citizen - Chronometer
Citizen's 'Officially certified' chronometer from 1962:
1962 - Chronometer
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Official Certificate showing performance against the seven required standards
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Citizen - Square Custom
1968 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004031 ... TI-A14.htm

1969 example:
http://nakahiro.parfait.ne.jp/moji/square.html


Citizen - Cosmotron X8 Chronometer
The X8 Chronometer was the ultimate electro-mechanical watch from Citizen. This special version was produced in 1970, it had a 99.6% titanium case and when new cost 45,000JPY. No more than 2000 were produced.
1970 - Citizen Cosmotron X8 Chronometer
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CITIZEN - Electric Tuning Fork Watches
Battery operated using a tuning fork to run the watch


Citizen - Hisonic
As a result of an arrangement with Bulova (who produced the Accutron tuning fork watch), Citizen produced their version in the form of the Hisonic, launched in 1971. It was accurate to within 1 second per day.
1971 - Citizen Hisonic
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Citizen - Super Hi-Line
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Citizen - Autodater 540
1966 - Citizen 540 Autodater
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1966 - Citizen 540 Autodater, with Lumed Hands
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Citizen - Super Crystal Date
1967 Super Crystal Date:
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Citizen - Super Precision
Citizen Super Precision, with high jeweled version of Jet rotor:
1963 - Super Precision Auto
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1963 - Super Precision Movement
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Citizen - ACSS 2812-Y
From 1967 - 33 jeweled movement, pie-pan dial, 18,000bph - interesting feature is the English & Kanji day wheel
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Citizen - ACSS 2923-TA
From 1968, 27 jeweled movement with hand winding and quickset date. Runs @ 18000bph
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Citizen - Diver watches
All automatic Diver style watches here.


Citizen -6000, 72-6052
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Case:
Width w/crown - 40mm
Width w/o crown - 38mm
Length - 40mm
Depth - 11mm
Lug width -19mm
Crystal - Faceted Acrylic(probably aftermarket)
6000 movement, 21 jewels, automatic, hand windable, 21,600bph, no quick set date


Citizen - Moondater
This is very similar to the Monthly, possibly an export version
Image
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Re: Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby Racer-X » February 22nd 2017, 5:50pm

Citizen - Flake
Citizen Date Flake, from Martback's collection:
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Citizen - Ace and Super Ace
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1. Citizen Ace (above -photo courtesy of Martback) - 21 & 23 jewels

2. Citizen Super Ace (below) - 23 jewels with "Specially Adjusted" & gold plated movement

The following example is a model A51507081. The crown may not be original style.
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=========================================================
See the Citizen Vintage Movement Table (linked to at the end of the Citizen Database entries) for more details on the movements


Citizen - F type
Movement Designation: F Type
Dial Markings: Citizen, Chronometer
Movement Type: Handwind
Beats per Hour: 18,000
Jeweling: 16, 17
Movement Width:
Movement Depth:
Features: Sub-dial for seconds
Production Start: 1931
Production End: 1959
Original Price: 5.35JPY to 6.65JPY (1931)
Notes: Citizen's first production watch, launched a year after the company was established - with its classic sub-dial showing seconds, the F Type experienced a long production run

Image


Citizen - K type
Movement Designation: K Type
Dial Markings: Citizen, Opera, Erian, Newton, Lucky
Movement Type: Handwind
Beats per Hour: 18,000
Jeweling: 15?
Movement Width:
Movement Depth:
Features: Sub-dial for seconds
Production Start: 1935
Production End:
Original Price: 6.15JPY to 7.90JPY (1935)
Notes: Citizen's first women's model

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Citizen - L type
Movement Designation: L Type
Dial Markings: Citizen
Movement Type: Handwind
Beats per Hour: 18,000
Jeweling:
Movement Width: 12.70mm
Movement Depth: 3.60mm
Features:
Production Start: 1940
Production End:
Original Price:
Notes: Woman's model

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Citizen - Pet
Movement Designation: 960(m)
Dial Markings: Citizen Pet, Parashock (from 1956)
Movement Type: Handwind
Beats per Hour: 21,600
Jeweling: 17
Movement Width:
Movement Thickness:
Features: Full size second hand
Production Start: 1951
Production End:
Original Price: 2,200JPY? To 6,150JPY
Notes: Women's watch which was Citizen's first model to run at 21,600bph. 'Parashock' marking on some models to be found only after 1956 when Citizen first introduced its shock resisting system

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Citizen - Calendar (Triple Date)
NOTE: This entry is now updated with further information from the Japanese site, BQ Watch Museum!

Movement Designation: C Type and also an F Type variant
Dial Markings: Calendar Watch, Citizen, Nivaflex
Movement Type: Handwind
Beats per Hour: 18,000
Jeweling: 16,17
Movement Width:
Movement Thickness:
Features: Date pointer, day window, month window, seconds sub-dial
Production Start: 1952
Production End:
Original Price: 4,170JPY? To 5,370JPY
Notes: Thought to use a Swiss design of movement, this was Citizen's first watch to show calendar as well as time information, in this case showing month and day, whilst a third hand also acts as a pointer to show the date. It also appears to be the first Citizen to have 'Nivaflex' on the dial – this was an alloy used for the mainspring. The 16 jewel and 17 jewel variants featured slightly different dial designs

BQ Watch Museum shows that this model went through 5 different "sub-generations". Using their terminology, we have:

1. The first period type

In this period, the calendar display was only in white color and only in English. The movements only came in 16 jewels but can be either "F" or "C" type according to them. In fact, their table shows both the "F" type and the other (presumably "C") movement type in use throughout the entire production run of this model (in all 5 "sub-generations").

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Calendar window frames are beveled.

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One identifying 'mark' of this period's production is that the correctors have corresponding "scallops" or holes in the back inner case "ring" as seen above. In later periods the entire back "ring" is solid all the way around.

The movement shot above is likely the "C" type. BQ also shows another example with an "F" type movement and it looks very much like the "F" type movement shown in our database entry for "Citizen - SubSecond w/ Expo back ca. 1949 - 1952(?)" seen @

http://seikoholics.yuku.com/sreply/604/ ... -1949-1952

See the 2nd picture in that entry to see the differences in architecture between the two movement types.

2. Initial type

Very much like the 1st type except the "spaces" for the correctors have been removed (or moved to the front side?).

3. The first term type

Again, only 16 jewel movement, but calendar display is now in Yellow and in English and Japanese

4. Mid-term type

Case style changes from the "first term" type to the "latter term" type. It seems 16 jewel movement were still mostly used, but it seems there may have been some 17 jewel movements used in this production period.

Calendar display is still in Yellow and in English and Japanese. However, it appears that the date track has been moved inward from the outermost chapter of the dial.

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5. Latter term type

Production switches to all 17 jewel movements, still using the "latter term" case type.

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It seems that one identifying mark of this latest term is that the calendar windows are no longer deeply beveled as before, but a 'frame' is drawn around them on the dial. In addition, BQ states that the date track is now back to the outer dial chapter.

BQ do caution that there may be some examples that defy these categorizations, however they still may be legitimate!

In addition, BQ infers that certain of the earlier types do NOT have a case style # on the case-back. They also do not do a very good job of describing the difference between the "first term" typeand the "latter term" type cases.
========================================================
The following are the original pictures used in this database entry:


1952 - Citizen Calendar
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16 jewel example:
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Citizen - Charm
Movement Designation: n/k
Dial Markings: Charm. Parashock
Movement Type:
Beats per Hour: 19,800
Jeweling:
Movement Width:
Movement Depth:
Features:
Production Start: 1957
Production End:
Original Price: 4,450JPY to 6,900JPY
Notes: Women's watch, Citizen's first model to run at 19,800bph (5.5 beats per second)
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Citizen - First Automatic
Citizen's first man's automatic winding watch to go into volume production was launched in 1958, running at 18,000 beats per hour:
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Duo tone version
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Citizen - Parawater
Citizen launched their first waterproof watch in 1959, patenting their system under the name Parawater. The watch was later tested successfully in the pacific Ocean in 1963. See the thread on Centre Second hand winding watches for information on Citizen's 'Parashock' system.

1959 - Citizen Parawater
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The Parawater System for the Crown assembly
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Citizen - Super Jet
1966 - Citizen Super Jet
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This 39 jeweled Super Jet was lost in the snow of the Himalayas for more than a year. It started up immediately when found.
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Citizen - Jet Seven
Here's a 1964 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004031 ... ITI-A3.htm


CITIZEN - Quartz
This is where quartz, kinetic and solar models go.


Citizen - Eco-Drive BM8180-03E
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Case:
Width w/crown - 40mm
Width w/o crown - 38mm
Length - 42mm
Depth - 9mm
Lug width -18mm
Crystal - Mineral glass
E100 movement, Solar powered, quick set day/date, day in English and French


Citizen - Seven Monthly
This model has a third window in the dial, showing the month. This is manually adjusted via a crown at 4o'clock. 18,000bph, accuracy of + or - 20seconds:
1965 - Seven Monthly
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Citizen - Carol
Launched in 1963, this was the thinnest and smallest movement of its day (woman's watch):
1963 - Citizen Carol
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1963 - Citizen Carol date
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Citizen - Carol
This model was the first volume production woman's automatic, from 1963:
1963 - Citizen Carol Automatic
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Citizen - Super Hiness
Citizen's first higher end watch for women, running at 21,600 beats per hour and with fine adjuster, was launched in 1964:
1964 - Citizen Super Hiness
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Citizen - Honey
This woman's model was Citizen's first to be designed to international standard sizes for ease of servicing and repair:
1961 - Citizen Honey
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Citizen - Highness
Produced in 1971, the Highness was made to the 'Highness' standard, equating to chronometer specifications. It uses the 77xx movement, probably running at 36,000 beats per hour (to be confirmed) which can also be found in the Leopard range, all of which were high beat models using various 7xxx movements:
1971 - Citizen Highness
Image
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Re: Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby Racer-X » February 22nd 2017, 5:50pm

Citizen - SubSecond w/ Expo back ca. 1949 - 1952(?)
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More examples - in Stainless case; mvmt pics...
Two slight variations in dial & casing:
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A beautiful shot to start out the movement section:
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More exterior shots including the unusual crown signature:
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Citizen - 8110a, 67-9178
4-901100 & 67-9178 case code#s.

This model is one of the "less commonly found" models & one of my personal favorites. It has been dubbed the "Spaceman" by some in the hobby, though personally I think of it as rather diver-like in appearance:
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Citizen - Crystate
Movement Designation: 0911
Dial Markings: Crystate, Crystate Deluxe, Star (deluxe version)
Movement Type: Handwind
Beats per Hour: 18,000
Jeweling: 21, 22 (Crystate Deluxe)
Movement Width: 25.60mm
Movement Depth: 4.00mm
Features: Second Setting
Production Start: 1967
Production End: 1971
Original Price: 9,500JPY (21j), 12,000JPY (22j)
Notes:
First produced in 1967, I believe production ran to about 1971. Two models were produced, the Crystate and the Crystate Deluxe. Uniquely using the 0911 movement the standard version had 21 jewels, whilst the Deluxe version featured 22. Interestingly, Citizen’s hand winding Chrono Masters were also launched in 1967/8 using the 0920 and 0930 movements with 22 and 25 jewels. This clearly suggests that the Crystate shared the same base movement as the high grade Chrono Master. The 0911 movement runs at 18000 beats per hour, and carries the same finish as the 0920 & 0930 Chrono Masters, again suggesting these used the same base movements and parts. The second hand on the Crystate is slightly unusual in that it is rather short, yet has a long 'tail'. The Crystate logo on the 21j model is at the 6 o'clock position, whilst the deluxe logo is found at the 12 o'clock position. Note the specific font for the logos, repeated on the case back.


Two examples of the Crystate, both from 1967:
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Crystate (21j) Movement:
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Crystate 'museum' book picture for reference:
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The Deluxe 22 jewel model (from 'museum' book):
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Two more examples, a Deluxe and one with a textured dial and roman numerals:
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Citizen - Crystal Seven Custom
This was a sub-line featuring modern (for the time) designs compared to the more classic approach of the Crystal Seven
1967 - Crystal Seven Custom, also known as the Waterfall, or Niagara. First dial to feature colour to appeal to the younger market
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1967 - Date only women's model
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1968 - from Martback's collection
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1968 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2007052 ... TI-A42.htm

1968 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2006052 ... TEZ-C5.htm

1969 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004062 ... EZ-C11.htm

Further example of Niagara, Cal. 5202, ca. 1968:
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Citizen - 4-521226-Y
From 1969:
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Citizen - 67-0286
1971 'Blackie' model, using the 7290 movement:
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Citizen - 4-260066-K
27 jeweled Cutlass from 1969. This one has a 5260 movement - making the case/model number somewhat misleading:
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Citizen - Centre Second Solid Gold
This model uses version 6 of the movement, first produced in 1957.
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Citizen - Skeleton
Automatic watches with no dial to allow movement to be seen:
Citizen Skeleton from Martback's collection
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1971/73 example, using 8060a movement and featuring an exhibition back:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004062 ... TEZ-C1.htm

1971/73 example:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2004031 ... TI-A31.htm



Citizen - Skeleton
Featuring no dial and a glass back so that both sides of the movement are visible.

'Galileo' model, production year not known:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2005010 ... EZ-C12.htm



67-9178, 4-901100-TA
Here's mine - note the orange hand set, which is different from Don's version. It's possible that these were not the original ones for this model, although they appear to be genuine Citizen hands as used on a number of chronos. Mine also has slightly different markings around the border of the dial:

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Citizen - 4-771061-Y
This model features and interesting and probably unique to Citizen quickset date method. The date is set with the crown in the normal position, and is pressed whilst holding the watch in a vertical position (12 o'clock high). The day is set by turning it through 180 degrees, and holding it with 6 o'clock high, then pressing the crown is still in the normal position. Alt least one of the Leopard models uses this method, as well as some of the electro-mechanical watches (Cosmotrons).
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The quickset mechanism (7806A Cosmotron movement):
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Citizen - 8110a, 67-9313
Sometimes known as the Citizen 'Speedy' due to its resemblance to the Omega Speedmaster, here is the white dialed version, this one is from 1976, case number 4-901207 TA:
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Citizen - 8110a, 67-9020 'Bullhead'
examples here (think this is the gold plated / golden dialed version of the 'bullhead')


Citizen - 8110a, 67-9119
After the 8110a bullhead, this variant is probably the next most seen version for sale, although still much less common than the bullhead (which is often the subject of aftermarket dials). It features a rotating inner tachymeter bezel, operated by a small crown at the 10 o'clock position. There is also a single register 8100 - model 67-9551 - which is of the same style.

This example is from 1980, and may be on an original bracelet. The case also appears to retain its original brushed finish:
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Example from 1978:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2007021 ... TI-A15.htm


Citizen - 8110a, 67-9143 'Bullhead'
This is the black cased golden dialed version of the 'bullhead':

This example is from 1975:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2016080 ... TEZ-C3.htm


67-9178, 4-901100-TA White Dial
Here's a white dialed version from 1974:
https://wayback.archive.org/web/2007052 ... TI-A50.htm



Cal. 7200 - 36000bph Certified Chronometer
Not labeled as Leopard, but using the same caliber movement.
This example has a 32j variant:
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Citizen - ACSS-2924-Y; 43 jewels
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Re: Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby Racer-X » February 22nd 2017, 5:50pm

Citizen - 8110a, 67-9071
Sometimes described as the Monaco version, due its resemblance to the Heuer model:
1973 - Citizen Chronograph (from Martback's collection)
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A green dialed variant was also produced:
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Citizen - Seven Star Diver
Compressor style diver from the late 1960's, this was large for its day, measuring 43mm across (excluding crown). The movement runs at 18000bph, can be hand wound, and the upper crown rotates the inner tachymeter ring. The model reference number is either APSS 2812-Y or 4-520343 Y

Dial colours identified so far are black, silver, blue and red.

Black dialed version:
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Red dialed version, from April 1969 - note that this version has slightly different dial markings - 'waterproof' rather than 'parawater', and 'seven star' logo replaced by '21 jewels' and 'automatic' printed at the 6o'clock position - along with the case back (see below) this suggests that this was an export version:
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Two types of case back can be found, the first (on the above red version) is probably for export models:
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The other type of case-back:
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Silver dialed version:
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Blue dialed version, from 1968:
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The 5270 movement:
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Seven Star Diver with External Bezel, again using the 52xx movement:
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Citizen - 4-770111 TA
Leopard Super Beat 8, running at 28,800bph, with the 26 jewel 7710 movement featuring hand winding and hacking - this movement was also the basis for the high end Citizen Highness model:
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Citizen - 4-770609 TA
Leopard running at 28,800bph, with 24 jewel 77xx movement from 1973 (note back is still marked 'parawater', compared with the oval 36k above from the same year) - with finer adjustment the 77xx movement was used in the high end 'Highness' model :
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Citizen - 4-610181 Y
Woman's watch from 1969, marked 'parawater' measures 25mm across, excluding crown:
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Citizen - Crystron
Citizen's first line of quartz watches using the 86xx movement. The pinnacle was the 'Crystron Mega 4' a limited production and very expensive super-accurate version. Although it was hampered by short battery life the Mega was accurate to within 3 seconds per year, beating at 4mhz.
Two examples of Citizen Crystrons from 1973
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Solid 18 carat gold Crystron Mega from 1975 - limited edition of 3000, originally priced at 4.5million JPY
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Citizen - 8110a, 67-9054 Blue Dial + Tachymeter
Here's the blue dialed model with tachymeter:
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Citizen - 555
555 model to go here


Citizen - 555 Autodater
555 automatic:
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Citizen - Superking
Superking autodater to go here




Citizen - 3802-451732 Y
An early Promaster diver rescued from Ramon's treasure chest...
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Citizen - 8110a, 67-9151
9151 to go here


Citizen - 8110a, 67-9356
This version of the 'bullhead' (Challenge Timer) has the octagonal case.
This model is from 1981
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Citizen - 8100, 67-9577
This example is from 1972:
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Citizen - 8100, 67-9631
9631 to go here



Citizen - 8100, 67-9551 / 4-900022-K
Black cased version and of 1973 vintage, this is the single sub-dial 'brother' of the twin register 67-9119 in terms of dial style. The band on this one is probably not original but is a suitable style:
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Another example of this stealthy, military look! The strap is supposedly the original style as well.
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Citizen Crystron Solar
Citizen's first solar powered watch, introduced in 1976, thought to be the world's first solar cell watch:
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Citizen Centre Second - Radial Dial
This model has a heavily textured dial, which is also marked 'Phynox' - denoting the alloy used to make the main spring:
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Citizen - Compact
Compact model to go here



Citizen - Calibre 6500
A range of early to mid 1970's automatics often with colourful styling. Handwindable, with quickset date and day set by changing 20-24hr. 21,600 beats per hour.
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Re: Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby Racer-X » February 22nd 2017, 5:50pm

Citizen - 4-650972-K
This model from 1972 illustrates the bolder styling of the 1970's, with large case / bezel, and gold face with black detailing in hands and hour markers. Faceted glass completes the style statement of the day:

The stainless steel crown may be a replacement since it's not signed and the likely colour choice for the original would be gold. The case is coated black, with a metallic bezel - the case coding (BLTI) suggest titanium, but this requires further research / verification.
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Citizen - ACSS 2807-Y
27 jeweled model from 1967, with dark grey dial and English only day wheel. Hand winding movement, with quickset day and date wheels, running at 18,000 beats per hour:
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Citizen - 8110a, Wolf Racing Special Edition
This is a very rare limited edition produced in the late 1970's (the pictured race car below is from 1978) for the Walter Wolf Formula 1 motor racing team. The dial carries the 8110 code, and the sub-register and seconds hands are the familiar designs used in other 8110a variants. However, the case is marked as titanium, the crown and buttons appear to be custom designs as are the hour and minute hands. The dial and case back both feature the Wolf team logo, and the bezel bears compass points rather than being a tachymeter:
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Citizen - 8110a, 67-9038
A colourful dial marks this model, with white fixed inner tachymeter and silver sub-dials with cyan highlights. The bezel should be black, on this model it has been polished presumably to remove all chipped paint which is a common issue on the black finish of Citizen's vintage pieces. The case material code - SSB - indicates stainless steel, black bezel. This example from 1974, with a somewhat faded dial, may be on an original solid link bracelet:
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Citizen - Alarm Date Custom V2
A rare variant, this model featured a black case, with stainless steel bezel and orange inner rotating bezel, firmly marking it as an early 1970's piece:

This one is from 1971:
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This is probably the original bracelet, unfortunately the strap has deteriorated too much to be wearable:
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Citizen - Jet Diver
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Citizen - 4-901061-K
Green dialed model from 1973, with Chinese day wheel & appears to be all original. Black bracelet may be original too. The case is a mix of black coating and stainless steel, and features a 'faceted' upper case style:
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Citizen - Crystal Date
Crystal date model to go here



4-521226-Y
An apparently 'NOS' example, with original price tag of 12,500JPY:
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Citizen - Glorious Citizen
The Glorious Citizen (GC) is a very rare watch - it appears to be a direct competitor to the Grand Seiko, with 'classic' styling and simple date only dial. The watch uses the 7400 date only movement running at 36,000 beats per hour, and had an accuracy specification of -2 to +3 seconds per day. As a comparison, the Grand Seiko 6155 was specified to -3 to +3 seconds per day.

The 7xxx series of movements were used in Citizens high beat watches, appearing in the late 1960's/early 1970's, and can be found in the Leopard range (72xx, 76xx and 77xx), whilst the 7700 movement was also used in the high end and rare 'Highness' model.

This example, marked 'parawater', has a production date of September 1971 (i.e. serial number 109):

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Vintage Citizen Movement Table, 1931 to 1977
The following link will take you to a wrist watch movement table I have compiled that covers Citizen's mechanical, electro-mechanical and their tuning fork 'Hisonic' movements from the company's first model, in 1931, to 1977 when quartz technology was in the ascendant. The table is in the form of a PDF file (needs Acrobat Reader to view), which can be viewed on-line or downloaded. The file can be printed but cannot be edited or copied - this is to allow me to keep control of it and subsequent versions, since it will undoubtedly be revised as additional or new information is verified.

Please let me know if you see any possible errors, or if you have information on movements or models not currently in the list, and of course if there are any technical problems accessing the document.

The movements are in chronological order by year of production, with the model name as the primary description. I hope it is of value and fills something of a gap in the information available about Citizen's mechanical watch heritage. Production Date Guide is included. Can be accessed via my blog:

http://sweep-hand.org/



Production Date
Citizen began to use consistent serial numbers on their watch case backs from around the early 1960's. Here is some guidance on how to use the number to determine when a watch was produced (in combination with the Movement Table):

http://homepage.ntlworld.com/stephen.ne ... Secure.pdf

(edit: revised to Version 1.1 to add notes on period to which the guide applies)

Stephen

Document link has changed to:
http://homepage.ntlworld.com/stephen.ne ... Secure.pdf


Center Second - Nivaflex
ca. 1955

Nivaflex spring material indicated. Was also used in some Orient models in 1950s (see entry for Orient Star Dynamic under Orient mechanical hand-wind section).

Also note that this model is labeled as "CitizenWatch":
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Citizen F-Type - Chronometer
Likely ca. 1940s
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Citizen Ace - Discus Example 1
Typical dial design, with sword hands and applied markers, this one is from 1961:
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The distinctive etched case back, with Discus logo at the centre:
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Citizen Ace - Discus Example 2
This model, from 1962, has a more unusual dial with indented hour marker track and well sculpted lumed hands (photos courtesy of Tony C):
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Citizen - Chrono Master
The Chrono Master is a 'high-end' watch that first appeared in Citizen's line-up in 1967. Although it was not the first of Citizen's watches to include chronometer grade movements, since it was preceded by the Chronometer in 1962, it featured a range of models in both hand-wind and automatic forms, and has probably become Citizen's most recognised high grade vintage watch.


This two part article summarises the history and development of the Chrono Master, with examples and other material shown for reference.
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Part 1

The Hand-Winding Chrono Master:

1967 Models: Citizen launched the Chrono Master with two models in its first year, using movements 0920 and 1870 respectively. The obvious outward differences are that the 1870 has a date wheel and higher jeweling – 25 rather than the 22 found in the 0920. Although their specifications are very similar, their respective heritage may be different – the movement numbering suggests the closest model to the 1870 was the 'Super Deluxe Date' (movement number 1860) first produced in 1965, both being related to the 18xx movements used in the humble 'Homer' range (first produced in 1962). Two variants of each model were made, one with 'chronometer' on the dial, suggesting a higher degree of adjustment, and reflected in its price at the time (see below).
The lineage of the 0920 is less clear – in the same year (1967) the 'Crystate' and 'Crystate Deluxe' models used the 0911 movement, but no earlier movements are numbered '09xx' as far as I can determine.
Both versions run at 18,000 beats per hour, and the movements are both 25.60mm wide. Both types were also produced in 18K gold. However, the solid gold variants were not marked as Chrono Masters, but were marked 'Chronometer' / 'Officially Certified':


The 0920 Chrono Master:
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0920 Movement:
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0920 Back:
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The 0920 Chronometer:
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The 1870 Chrono Master:
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1870 Movement:
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1870 Back:
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The 1870 Chronometer:
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The 1920 18k gold model:
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The 1870 18k gold model:
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18K (1870) movement:
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18k case back:
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1968 Model: A year on and the 0930 movement was launched, its markings confirming it was adjusted to provide chronometer grade time-keeping. Two dial variations are found, one simply marked 'Special', achieving chronometer grade, and the other marked 'Superior Chronometer' as well as 'Special'. The latter suggests even finer adjustment and accuracy , presumably to exceed the usual chronometer standards.
Notably, the 0930 movement now featured a micro-adjuster, not found on the earlier two movements.

0930 Special:
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0930 Special Movement:
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0930 Superior:
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0930 Superior Movement:
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0930 Superior Back:
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I am not clear at the moment as to the production run for these models - a table (in Japanese) that I have suggests they were produced until 1972 based on my own deductions from model listings and their jewel counts.


Logo Styles:
As can be seen from the above examples, the applied Citizen logo came in three slightly different styles:
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Performance:
I have not found any performance certificates for any of the Citizen Chrono Masters, but here is one for their Chronometer model (I would imagine that the same standards would be applied to the Chrono Master chronometers). I believe these correspond to the COSC standards at that time:

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Original Prices:
These are the prices when the models were first launched - all in Japanese Yen of course:


0920: 22j, SS Chrono Master..................................18,000
22j, SS Chrono Master Chronometer............19,000
22j, 18K Gold Chronometer..........................80,000
0930: 22j, SS Special ..............................................25,000
22j, SS Superior ...........................................26,000
1870: 25j, SS Chrono Master .................................21,000
25j, SS Chrono Master Chronometer.............22,000
25j, 18K Gold ................................................83,500


Here are examples from the 1971 Catalog:
0930 Superior:
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1870 Chronometer:
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0920 Chronometer with Tags:
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0930 Superior with Tags:
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Packaging:
Finally, the Chrono Master was delivered in a simple black case:
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Footnote: Part 2 of this Article can be found in the Automatics section of this database.

Stephen

An example of the Chrono Master, caliber # 0920:

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Re: Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby Racer-X » February 22nd 2017, 5:51pm

Citizen - Super Deluxe Date
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Reference Article Now Available.... on the automatic mechanical chronographs on my blog site: http://sweep-hand.org/
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Re: Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby bedlam » February 23rd 2017, 12:18am

Great stuff. So many cool watches in that post...its hard to know what to say.

Had a couple of 8200 movement divers and think they are under-appreciated. Basic beaters that are completely unkillable. I gifted one to a friend and still have the other.
"If I could put a finger on the moment we genuinely fucked ourselves, it was the moment we decided that data was something you could use words like believe or disbelieve around...

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Re: Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby jason_recliner » February 23rd 2017, 12:22am

No Crystron diver? Possibly the beefiest, most solid, most bomb proof, most bestest diver I ever owned. Also the best investment - more than tripled my money. Sweet watch.
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Re: Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby bobbee » February 23rd 2017, 2:58am

Epic and absolutely gob-smacking! A real eye opener for me too. Thanks for posting this RacerX.

Here are some hundreds of tech sheets, operating instructions, movement diagrams and guides. Hope you don't mind my posting them RX.

http://www.phfactor.net/wtf/Citizen%20Tech/

http://www.phfactor.net/wtf/Citizen%20Tech%20Sheets/
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Re: Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby eddiea » February 23rd 2017, 6:03am

Cool post that should be a sticky , great read!.....
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Re: Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby Racer-X » February 23rd 2017, 2:23pm

bobbee wrote:Epic and absolutely gob-smacking! A real eye opener for me too. Thanks for posting this RacerX.

Here are some hundreds of tech sheets, operating instructions, movement diagrams and guides. Hope you don't mind my posting them RX.

http://www.phfactor.net/wtf/Citizen%20Tech/

http://www.phfactor.net/wtf/Citizen%20Tech%20Sheets/



Wow, these are great bobbee!
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Re: Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby koimaster » February 23rd 2017, 4:05pm

The parent directory of that site.

http://www.phfactor.net/wtf/

I do not have the tech savy to bring the links in without fucking all of these in so I downloaded some to put up at Issuu later tonight.
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Re: Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby conjurer » February 23rd 2017, 8:54pm

Dang, Russ! You are a fucking Viking!
I checked you out, and I now want you to take the journey to lick my taint. It's small, but vast.


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Re: Citizen Brand - Historical Reference

Postby TemerityB » March 10th 2017, 1:45pm

Picked up a pair of Citizen watches in the past couple of years and they've become part of the regular rotation. Enjoying the diver particularly; rock solid and no signs of wear on it at all. The more I learn, the most I like them; it's proof that a "popular" brand can still deliver the goods in a variety of ways.

Racer's thread of late have been stellar.
Proof that quartz is still not only viable, but sometimes, something to covet: Grand Seiko.
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